Hypertension, also referred to as HTN or High Blood Pressure, is a medical condition characterized by a chronic elevation in blood pressure. Blood travels through your arteries, exerting force as it moves.
High blood pressure, or Hypertension, chronically elevates blood pressure. One in three American adults has hypertension, and one fourth have prehypertension. Prehypertension, not a distinct disease, labels individuals at high risk. Currently, hypertension affects over 80 million Americans and one billion globally.
This condition classifies as essential (primary) or secondary. Firstly, essential hypertension, 90% of new cases, lacks a specific cause. Whereas secondary hypertension results from conditions like chronic kidney disease.
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Persistent hypertension significantly risks strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease, and dementia. It’s the top modifiable risk factor for about 12% of global deaths. As a result, even moderate arterial blood pressure elevation reduces life expectancy.
Doctors diagnose hypertension with a systolic blood pressure consistently at 140 mmHg or higher. The normal range is 120/80 or less. consequently, readings of 120/80 mmHg to 139/89 mmHg are prehypertension. Lifestyle modifications can manage blood pressure in this group.
For diabetes and most kidney diseases, a blood pressure over 130/80 mmHg is high. Individuals with kidney disease and over one gram of protein in a 24-hour urine sample should aim for 125/75 or lower.
Hypertension is resistant or refractory if blood pressure stays high despite using three or more antihypertensive medications, one being a diuretic.